ISBN : 951-45-7756-6

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Postharvest Performance Of Apples Grown In The Åland Islands 1993 - 1995 With Refference To Preharvest Calcium Treatments


Ramdane Dris and Raina Niskanen

Category: Fruits

In recent years, there have been clear signs of an increase in the demand of domestic apples during late autumn and at Christmas time in the Finland. As a consequence, apple growers have shown an increasing interest to expand production and to store fruits for longer periods, spesially in the Åland Islands, which are most prominent apple growing destrict in Finland. However, the apple quality after strorage has been unsatisfactory for the late marketing.

Apples should be harvested,  packed and stored properly. For  further  improvement  of  apple  storability, more research is needed about  the effect of storage conditions  and orchard factors  on fruit  quality . Mineral composition , especially, calcium  content in fruits , is related to postharvest performance of apples . Preharvest calcium treatments of fruit  have been used  for reducing storage disorders . However, such  techniques have not been studied or used in Finland. Therefore, a research  project on the effect of preharvest calcium treatment  on some commercial apple cultivars grown in the Aland Islands was  established in the Aland Island and at the University of Helsinki . The participating departments at the University of Helsinki were: Department  of Plant Production /Horticulture , Department of Applied Chemistry  and Microbiology / Agricultural Chemistry and Physics and Department of Food Technology. In Addition, Fruit Growers Association of the Aland Islands, Kemira Agro Ltd, Horti and Horticultural Research Institute (Agricultural Research Center) were also collaborators on this project.


  1. Introduction (p.5)
  2. Material and methods(p.6)

               2.1 Location and experimental fields(p.6)

               2.2 Preharvest calcium spraying of fruit lets (p.7)

               2.3 Harvest and transport(p.7)

               2.4 Storage experiments (p.8)

                       2.4.1 Storage experiment in the Aland Island (p.8)

                       2.4.2 Storage experiment in Viiki (p.9)

              2.5 Analytical methods (p.9)

              2.6 Statistical analysis (p.10)

        3. Results (p.11)

              3.1 Storage experiments 1993(p.11)

                        3.1.1 Storage experiment in the Aland Island (p.11)

                        3.1.2 Storage experiment in Viiki (p.17)

              3.2 Storage experiments 1994 (p.19)

                        3.2.1 Storage experiment in the Aland Island (p.19)

                        3.2.2 Storage experiment in Viiki (p.24)

              3.3 Storage experiments  1995 (p.27)

              3.4 Levels of fruit nutrients in experimental period 1993-1995 (p.36)

              3.5 Change  of quality characteristics of apples during storage experiments 1993-1995 )p.38_

                        3.5.1 Fruit firmness per diameter F/D (p.38)

                        3.5.2 Soluble solids  concentration (SSC) in juice (p.45)

                         3.5.3 Juice pH (p.50)

                         3.5.4 Titratable acidity (TA) of juice (p.54)

                         3.5.5 Sugar/acid ratio (S/A) in juice (p.54)

                         3.5.6 Incidence of physiological storage disorders (p.59)

                         3.5.7 Storage life of apples (p.69)

        4. Discussions (p.72)

               4.1 Mineral composition of apple flesh in relation to storability (p.72)

               4.2 Effect of preharvest calcium chloride treatment (p.72)

               4.3 Effect of storage period on the keeping quality of apples (p.74)

         5. Recommendation (p.75)

         6. Acknowledgements (p.77)

         7. References (p.77)



Length of the book: 99 pages
Book size: A4
Book Weight: 279 g
Photos: White & black
Book cover: Soft cover

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