Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism is a “deliberate or reckless representation and copying of words, phrases, thoughts, or ideas of other researcher without giving attribution and citation.”

  1. Direct plagiarism – Taking another person’s ideas, words, phrases without giving proper citation.
  2. Self-plagiarism – Quoting your own previous work as part of a current assignment without permission.
  3. Mosaic plagiarism – Quoting another’s work without quotation marks. This can also refer to replacing words in another’s work with synonyms while maintaining the same overall structure and meaning.
  4. Accidental plagiarism – Forgetting to cite sources, misquoting sources, or paraphrasing sources without giving due credit.


 Six common ways to avoid plagiarism:


  • Paraphrase
  • Citing
  • Quoting
  • Citing Quotes
  • Citing Your Own Material
  • Referencing

General citation rules:

As there are many correct forms of citation, depending on one’s  use, your works cited will look a bit different. Generally, all citations must include most of the following:

  • Last name, First name of Author (s)
    • If there are more than a certain amount of authors, write the maximum amount with the words “et al.” after the last to imply authors one through #, with company.
  • Title of article/book/journal
  • Name of article/journal/source
  • Volume, issue, and page numbers (if it’s a journal article)
  • Publisher (either company, individual name and/or state)
  • Date of publication
  • What format you saw it in (book/print, journal, magazine, web, PDF…)
  • URL (if it was found online)
  • Date of access

For example:

  • Book:
    • Brown, Dan. The Da Vinci Code. New York. Doubleday. 2003. Book/Print. 4 March 2016.
  • Article:
    • Fan, Jiayang. The Golden Generation. Why China’s super-rich send their children abroad. The New Yorker. New York. 22 Feb 2016. Article. 4 March 2016.
  • Website:
    • Long, Heather. Red Flag: Oil company defaults are spiking. CNN Money. New York. 22 January 2016. Web. 4 March 2016.  
  • Journal:
    • Chankao, Kasem and Narongrit, Chada. Development and validation of rice evapotranspiration model based on Terra/MODIS remotely sensed data. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment. Vol. 7. Issues 3&4. Pages 684-689. WFL Publisher. 2009. Journal. 4 March 2016.