ISBN : 951-45-9670-6

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Leaf Macronutrient Composition in Relation to Growth and Yield Potential of Currants


Raina Niskanen

Category: Fruits

More knowledge is needed on the relation of nutrition to yield fluctuations, which are common problems in commercial currant production. The present study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status of black, red and white currant fields and the relationship of leaf macronutrients, expressed on different bases, and growth and yield of currants grown in varying soil moisture conditions. Soil fertility and leaf macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) were studied in commercial black, red and white currant fields in southern and middle Finland. Pot experiments with black currant ‘Öjebyn’ were conducted outdoors under a transparent roof. In Pot Experiment I, the treatments were N fertilization and moisture level. In field trials with black currant ‘Öjebyn’, red currant ‘Red Dutch’ and white currant ‘White Dutch’, the treatments were no irrigation and drip irrigation. The leaf blades of experimental plants were picked twice during the growing season for macronutrient analysis (N, P, K, Ca, Mg). Shoot growth and yield were also measured. In Pot Experiment II, all leaves and new long shoots were collected in autumn, and total growth and leaf composition (ash, dry matter, C, N, P, K) were determined. In commercial currant fields, concentrations of soil P, Mg and Ca, and leaf Mg often fell below and leaf P and Ca concentrations exceeded the recommendations. Positive correlations were found between soil and leaf nutrient concentrations for P, Ca and Mg. Concentrations of leaf N and K decreased and Ca and Mg increased towards the end of the growing season. An increase in monthly rainfall increased the leaf Mg concentration during June-July and reduced the leaf N, K, Ca and Mg concentrations during July-August. The increase in water supply in the pot and field experiments promoted growth. Irrigation increased the mean and total length of new long shoots, total number of buds and branches per bush, leaf fresh weight (FW), dry matter (DM) and area (LA), berry yield and the weight of a hundred berries, but decreased the bud density. Irrigation increased the contents of all macronutrients per leaf, but on DM, FW and LA basis only, P and K increased while N and Mg decreased. With increasing N fertilization, leaf N increased but leaf P decreased. There were significant positive correlations between berry yield per bush, weight of a hundred berries, total and mean length of new long shoots and leaf size expressed as Dm, Fw and LA per leaf. Leaf dry matter and fresh weight correlated positively with nutrients other than P when expressed per LA. In the pot experiment, the leaf ash and nutrient contents per leaf and plant correlated positively with growth variables, the correlation being closest to the total leaf dry weight per plant, mean shoot length and dry weight per plant. When macronutrients were expressed as content per leaf, most correlations were positive for all other growth variables but bud density. In addition, leaf dry matter, fresh weight and surface area correlated positively with nutrients when expressed per leaf. In black currant fields, K and FW per leaf in June explained 68.3% of the variation of the mean length of shoots, K, DM and FW per leaf in July-August 62.3% of the variation of the total length of shoots, leaf K and Ca per FW in June 52.1% of the variation of the yield and K, P and N per leaf in July-August 73% of the variation of the hundred berry weight. In red and white currant fields, P, DM and FW per leaf in June explained 45.7% of the variation of the mean length of shoots, FW per leaf in June 55.9% of the variation of the berry yield and Dm and N per leaf in June 71.3% of the variation of the hundred berry weight. When leaf macronutrient concentrations were expressed per DM and FW, leaf N and Mg correlated negatively, but K, P, Ca mainly positively with berry yield, hundred berry weight and total and mean length of new long shoots. Bud density, however correlated positively with N and Mg and negatively with the other nutrients. The linear increase in nutrient contents per leaf with increasing nutrient concentrations per DM was most clear for K and P. Leaf analysis values expressed as nutrient concentrations per DM was most clear for K and P. Leaf analysis values expressed as nutrient concentrations per DM can give misleading information on the macronutrient status, especially in the case of N and Mg. Expression of leaf analysis results as nutrient contents per leaf might provide more meaningful comprehension on, the supply of nutrients and help in the interpretation of foliar analysis results.




1.1 Physiological role and composition of macronutrients in leaves

1.1.1 Forms and functions of macronutrient in plants

1.1.2 Effect of water supply on plant growth and leaf macronutrients

1.1.3 Effect of physiological age and nutrient supply on macronutrient concentration in leaves

1.1.4 Expression of plant nutrient composition

1.2 Leaf analysis as an indicator of the nutritional status of fruit crops

1.2.1 History

1.2.2 Leaf analysis of currants

1.3 Background and objectives of the study


2.1 Soil and leaf sampling on commercial fields;

2.2 Establishment of pot experiments on black currant plants;

2.2.1  Pot  experiment I

2.2.2 Pot  experiment II

2.3 Field experiments on black, red and white currants;

2.4 Analytical methods

2.4.1 Soil analysis

2.4.2 Leaf analysis

2.5 Statistical analysis and reliability of results;


3.1 Nutritional status of commercial currant fields;

3.2 Seasonal trends of macronutrients in black, red and white currant leaves;

3.3 Leaf macronutrients and shoot growth of young black currant plants;

3.3.1 Effect of N fertilization and  moisture levels on the leaf macronutrients, growth and yield of black currant (Pot experiment I)

3.3.2  Relationship between shoot growth and leaf composition

3.4 Effect of irrigation on growth, yield and leaf macronutrients of young black, red and white currant stands and relationships between leaf nutrients and growth variables;

3.4.1 Effect of irrigation and fertilization on leaf characteristics

3.4.2 Correlations between leaf macronutrients in field experiments

3.4.3 Effect of irrigation and fertilization on the growth and yield of currants in field experiments

3.4.4  Relationship between leaf macronutrients and growth and yield  variables in field experiments  Correlations with total and mean shoot length  Correlations with mean bud number and bud density Correlations with yield and weight of hundred berries


4.1 Effect of nitrogen fertilization and water supply on shoot growth, yield and leaf macronutrients

4.1.1 Effect of N fertilization

4.1.2 Effect of water supply

4.2 Relationships between leaf  macronutrients , growth and yield

4.2.1 Seasonal trends and correlations of leaf macronutrients

4.2.2 Correlations of growth and yield variables

4.3 Nutritional status in commercial currant fields and interpretation of leaf analysis result






ISSN: 1457-8085
Length of the book: 123 pages
Book size: C5
Book Weight: 304 g
Photos: White & black
Book cover: Soft cover

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