Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

Vol 7, Issue 2,2009
Online ISSN: 1459-0263
Print ISSN: 1459-0255

Detection and determination of furfural in crude palm oil


Abdul Azis Ariffin 1, Rosnah Mat Soom 2, Huey-Chern Boo 1, Chia-Chun Loi 1, Yuen-Hwa Chai 1, S. M. AbdulKarim 1*

Recieved Date: 2008-12-10, Accepted Date: 2009-04-06


In the palm oil mill, fresh fruit bunch (FFB) undergoes various thermal and mechanical treatments to produce the crude palm oil (CPO). FFB consists of many fruits attached to the spikelets that are spirally arranged on the main bunch stalk. Each fruit is made up of a nut enveloped by the fleshy mesocarp, which is reinforced by strands of fibers running from the base towards the fruit tip. A ripe fruit mesocarp contains oil-rich cellulosic cells. These cells are bound together by hemicellulose. Whilst cellulose is very stable, the hemicellulose is easily hydrolyzed. This hydrolysis occurs during sterilization of the FFB when it is exposed to temperatures of 140-145°C and pressure of 40-45 pound per square inch (psi) or 275.8-310.3 kPa for 1-1½ hours. This condition aims at and ensures the detachment of fruits from the bunch. The in-depth chemical changes that occur in the FFB during sterilization are not fully understood and continuously being investigated. Xyloses form one of the products of hydrolysis, and furfural is another product that results from the dehydration of pentose formed also upon the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Presence of furfural was tested in six extracted samples, namely CPO, mill-pressed crude, condensate oil, sludge oil, sterilized FFB oil and unsterilized FFB oil, using aniline acetate colorimetric method, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The color formation was compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was detected in CPO, crude, condensate oil, sludge oil and sterilized FFB oil, while it was undetected in the unsterilized FFB. The amount of furfural was quantified in CPO, condensate oil and sludge oil using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).


Crude palm oil, hemicellulose, xylose, furfural

Journal: Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment
Year: 2009
Volume: 7
Issue: 2
Category: Food and Health
Pages: 136-138

Full text for Subscribers

Note to users

The requested document is freely available only to subscribers/registered users with an online subscription to the Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment. If you have set up a personal subscription to this title please enter your user name and password. All abstracts are available for free.

Article purchasing

If you like to purchase this specific document such as article, review or this journal issue, contact us. Specify the title of the article or review, issue, number, volume and date of the publication. Software and compilation, Science & Technology, all rights reserved. Your use of this website details or service is governed by terms of use. Authors are invited to check from time to time news or information.

Purchase this Article:   20 Purchase PDF Order Reprints for 15

Share this article :