Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

Vol 12, Issue 3&4,2014
Online ISSN: 1459-0263
Print ISSN: 1459-0255

X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of ancient bricks from Sungai Batu Temple (site SB1), Bujang Valley, Kedah


Zuliskandar Ramli 1*, Nik Hassan Shuhami Nik Abdul Rahman 1, Abdul Latif Samian 1, Muhammad Rizal Razman 2, Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria 3, Hossein Sarhaddi Dadian 4

Recieved Date: 2014-06-10, Accepted Date: 2014-09-20


The aim of this study was to determine whether the ancient bricks from Sungai Batu Temple (SB1) are made from local materials or not. Chronometric and relative dating have given different results, the absolute dating gave the date between 2nd to 3rd century AD while the relative dating gave the date between 6th to 7th century AD. The structure which was fully built using bricks is a relatively large stupa structure and not a structure associated with animism practised. In order to determine whether the bricks that were used to build the structure of Site SB1 used  local raw materials or otherwise, thus material composition analysis needs to be carried out which involves X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Analysis shows that the mineral content present in the ancient brick samples consists of quartz, muscovite, microcline, mullite and albite. The mullite mineral shows that some of the bricks were baked at sufficient temperature of more than 550°C. This shows that the open burning technique was used in the production of the temple’s bricks because some of the bricks have an indication of low firing burning. The dry weight percentage graph of silica and aluminium, and magnesium and titanium, as well as the lead and copper concentration graph indicate that the raw materials used to produce the ancient bricks are local raw materials and these raw materials were obtained from the surrounding area of  Bujang District.


Sungai Batu Temple, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), Bujang Valley

Journal: Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment
Year: 2014
Volume: 12
Issue: 3&4
Category: Environment
Pages: 360-364

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