Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

Vol 17, Issue 3&4,2019
Online ISSN:
Print ISSN: 1459-0263

Heavy metal contamination of sewage water, grass and milk in Tamil Nadu, India, as possible cause of autoimmune disorders in exposed population


S. Ravi1,  S. Kannan2

Recieved Date: 2019-07-08, Accepted Date: 2019-09-20


This investigation was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal concentration of sewage fed fodder grass and milk from animals grazed around the Vellakkal village, Madurai city, Tamil Nadu, India. The sewage water, grass and milk samples were subjected to heavy metal analysis (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni) by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results indicated that Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni were detected in the sewage water, grass and milk samples. However, Zn found predominant among other heavy metals in sewage, grass and milk samples followed by Ni, Cu and Pb. Heavy metals including lead, copper, zinc and nickel are present throughout the ecosystem and are detectable in small amounts in the sewage water, grass and milk. The main route of exposure of humans to these metals is via the ingestion of contaminated food, especially milk,  which is possible cause of  some autoimmune disorders in population living in the study area.


Autoimmune disorders, heavy metals, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, risk assessment

Journal: Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment
Year: 2019
Volume: 17
Issue: 3&4
Category: Environment
Pages: 72-74

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